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Sunday, January 07, 2018

Update on Tentative Proposals for Janus Parallelism in the Book of Mormon

About a year ago I published several articles here at Mormanity on the topic of Janus parallelism, where one Hebrew word or phrase with dual meanings can invoke both, one linked to or looking back to the preceding words and the other meaning looking forward to the following words. It's a fascinating case of deliberate ambiguity in the Hebrew, and it is used heavily in Job, as scholar Scott Noegel has demonstrated with his exploration of over 50 examples in Janus Parallelism in the Book of Job. Building on my past posts, I recently published a book review of Noegel's work in The Interpreter, and then on Friday The Interpreter also published my follow-up research note on the possibility of Janus parallelisms in the Book of Mormon. I tentatively look for examples of known cases that Noegel has identified by searching for related English words and usages in the Book of Mormon. It's a very speculative effort fraught with risk of false positives, of course.

There's an update to that note already that might be of interest to some of you. Still speculative, of course, but I'd appreciate any feedback.

One publication that would have been useful to cite, had it come out a little earlier, is the work of Matthew Bowen published a few weeks ago: "Jacob's Protector" also at The Interpreter. Bowen explores several subtle themes in the Book of Mormon involving the patriarch Jacob, and in discussing Jacob’s divine “wrestle” in Genesis 32, observes that the word "wrestle" can also mean "embrace." To me, this strengthens the proposed Janus parallelism for Alma 8:9-10 (my tentative Example #1), where I proposed that a Hebrew word meaning "poured out" that can also mean "hedge in, enclose," looks back to the earlier "wrestled" in that passage. The "enclose" sense would seem to be particularly suitable for alluding to a Jacob-like divine embrace/wrestle in seeking aid for the people Alma is ministering to.

Bowen sees a reference to a wordplay involving Jacob's wrestle/embrace in this passage. In light of the possible Janus parallelism in Alma 8:9-10 and Bowen's discussion of Book of Mormon word plays involving wrestling, there may be even more parallelism to consider in this possibly artful passage.

If the use of "wrestling" deliberately alludes to Jacob, perhaps we should consider that possibility as well in the opening stich regarding Satan's "hold" upon the hearts of the people (Alma 8:9). Could this use the same root that Gen. 25:26 uses to describe how Esau "took hold" of Jacob's heel? The Hebrew root is Strong's H270, 'achaz. This root can also mean to enclose (Piel), which might resonate with embrace/wrestle and the potential dual meaning proposed for "pour out" in the passage in question.

The phrase in verse 9, "Satan had gotten great hold upon the hearts of the people," is paralleled in verse 11 by the response of the people to Alma's words: "Nevertheless, they hardened their hearts...." Could "hardened" here be related to Strong's H2388, chazaq? This root can mean to harden or to hold or contain. It is translated as "harden" 13 times in the KJV, as in the hardening of Pharaoh's heart in Exodus 4:21, 7:13, and 7;22, But it is also translated as "hold" 5 times.

Chazaq and 'achaz may be part of an intriguing passage with meaningful parallelism and potential word plays.

It might be tentatively structured like this:

A. Now Satan had gotten great hold ['achaz = hold / enclose] upon the hearts of the people of the city of Ammonihah ...

B. Nevertheless Alma labored much in the spirit, wrestling with [embracing, being enclosed by] God in mighty prayer,

B. that he would pour out [Janus pivot: enclose, fence in, hedge in / pour out] his Spirit upon the people who were in the city; that he would also grant that he might baptize them unto repentance.

A. Nevertheless, they hardened [chazaq = harden or hold] their hearts....

Or:

A. Hold ['achaz] on hearts
B. labor + wrestle [embrace, wrestle] in Spirit
B. pour out [looking back: hedge in, enclose / looking forward: pour out] Spirit
A. Harden [chazaq] hearts

Possible? In any case, the passage is even more interesting now. Feedback is welcome.

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